Descrença, negação política e antidemocracia em “Momento Waldo”

Quando todas as coisas parecem regredir, quando a economia encolhe, quando as pessoas precisam modificar seu estilo de vida, quando a fome avança, quando pessoas migram em busca de uma melhor vida, quando a violência explode, quando tudo isso ocorre ao mesmo tempo as pessoas se amedrontam. E é deste medo, medo do outro, do diferente, do estrangeiro, é a partir desse desespero que elas colocam sob suspeição todas as verdades antes estabelecidas, todos os conhecimentos e processos racionais, é neste momento de crise que deixam a passionalidade tomar a dianteira e passam a acreditar naquilo que, por ventura, seja capaz de reforçar seus sentimentos e confortar seu medo, mesmo que na base da violência. Grandes crises, econômicas, sociais e migratórias, sempre acompanham certo pessimismo humanitário e certa descrenças nas instituições existentes e socialmente deslegitimadas até então. Pois, aos poucos, tudo aquilo que parecia uma certeza começa a aparentar uma simples “opinião”, algo incapaz de mudar, de verdade, a péssima situação. A mídia, a igreja, a família, que antes pareciam ter a resposta para tudo, não mais impedem que a crise avance e que as pessoas se sintam com medo. Discutimos um pouco disso no texto sobre “piquenique na estrada” e pessimismo.

A academia, a mídia, a ciência e sobretudo a política, todas as instituições que realizam a produção discursiva e narrativa são abaladas ou deslegitimadas em grandes crises. A “realidade” exposta por elas – muitas vezes à partir de métodos empíricos – é rebaixada a mera “produção de discurso” enquanto teorias conspiratórias, revisionismo históricos e pseudo-ciências, são elevadas à “verdades secretas”, por responderem e oferecerem soluções de forma mais imediata e, talvez, simples, aos problemas vivenciados, mesmo que soluções falsas. Uma nova visão de mundo, distorcida do real, é alimentada e difundida numa espécie de histeria social, esperando um líder messiânico capaz de lidera-la. Foi esse processo que precedeu muitas das ditaduras modernas, da Itália fascista de Mussolini às ditaduras militares da América Latina. E é este ambiente que precede, mesmo que apresentada de forma sutil, a ditadura de em “Momento Waldo” no terceiro episódio da segunda temporada de Black Mirror.

Distopia Tecnológica?

Em post anterior sobre a série defendi que Black Mirror – ao menos em suas primeiras temporadas – é muito mais uma série sobre o comportamento humano e nossa tendência à crueldade, violência e corrupção do que, necessariamente, uma série sobre a tecnologia. As ferramentes tecnológicas sempre estão lá, enquanto facilitadoras para a corrupção humana, equipamentos plausíveis de serem subvertidos para desempenharem papéis bem menos “nobres” dos quais foram projetados.

Em “Momento Waldo” somos apresentados a um personagem animado, criado a partir da tecnologia de captura facial, que se torna um ditador político. Cabe-nos, aqui, refletir como isso foi possível.

Negação política e antidemocracia

No começo do episódio somos introduzidos, de forma sútil, ao cenário político do enredo. Em meio a escândalos sexuais do candidato conservador a população se encontra em um estado de descrença completa nas instituições políticas. Argumentar propostas, num ambiente de descrença aos políticos, soam como hipocrisias ou promessas vazias. Aos poucos todos os mecanismos de mediação política, como o debate, o jornalismo sério, a argumentação, são suspensos. Waldo, numa jogada de marketing de seu canal televisivo, se lança enquanto candidato. Utilizando do espaço institucional da eleição para blasfemar contra os demais candidatos. Insultos, piadas infantis, racistas, homofóbicas e pornográficas e denúncias realizadas de forma ofensivas fazem parte da estratégia do candidato. Ficando evidente o caráter anti-político de Waldo, que funciona quase como um símbolo da negação política. Mesmo que, ironicamente, seus interesses sejam controlados por uma mídia hegemônica e posteriormente coaptado por grupos políticos que sempre estiveram no poder e o patrocinam. Numa conversa entre o humorista que dá vida ao personagem, que tenta dar fim ao uso político de sua criação, e um dos responsáveis pelo canal, fica evidente o modo pelo qual Waldo se aproveita da negação política e do clima de descrença generalizada para crescer politicamente:

-Ele não defende nada! (diz o humorista)
-Sim, bem, pelo menos ele não finge. Olhe, nós não precisamos de políticos.

Defendendo, após isso, uma espécie de “democracia direta” onde o cidadão escolhe os rumos do país via internet. Waldo faz uma campanha que inflama o sentimento anti-político, em certo momento passa a defender a perseguição e a violência não apenas contra o político conservador, principal alvo de suas ofensas, mas a toda instituição política. E é, a partir dessa negação política que Waldo aparece, conquistado o poder enquanto um ditador, ao fim do episódio.

A tecnologia permitiu a personificação de um ator político que nega a própria política, nega a tal ponto de não se representar enquanto humano. E justamente por ser um representante da “anti-política” que Waldo é capaz de subverter a lógica das instituições e da própria democracia, afinal, tem respaldo de seus eleitores para ignorar os protocolos que até então garantiam um equilíbrio de forças. Mas a história é antiga, ocorrida diversas vezes ao longo do tempo, mesmo sem tais recursos tecnológicos, todas com o desfecho bastante semelhantes. A deslegitimidade e posterior exclusão das instituições políticas e a descrença na “realidade”, podem parecer inofensivas, fluxos naturais de um processo de mudança social. Mas marcam a supressão das instituições em função de interesses escusos, muitos dos quais a favor dos mesmos políticos desacreditados, que recorrem a um “atalho” para burlar a lógica democrática, usando, ironicamente, ferramentas políticas, como o “voto” – mesmo desacreditando nele e denunciando por diversas vezes a “manipulação eleitoral”. É comum encontrarmos, em pesquisas sobre o episódio em blogs e sites norte-americanos, comparações de Waldo com a campanha e eleição de Trump. O mesmo pode ser dito, infelizmente, sobre os rumos da política brasileira…

Um apelo aos novos rumos (anti) políticos

É perceptível que esse post, em véspera de eleição, tenha um ar de militância. Ou melhor, um ar de apelo. Quando as instituições políticas parecem datadas, viciadas por antigos hábitos, saqueadas pela má fé dos políticos, seu resgate torna-se o fundamento da recuperação democrática. A saída para uma má política deve – sempre – ser uma boa política, jamais uma anti-política. Desconfiem de políticos que se proclamam como novos messias, que tentam subverter a lógica institucional, ameaçando instituições que compõe o quadro e o equilíbrio democrático. Suspeitem, sobretudo, de discursos que procuram o convencimento através da passionalidade, daqueles que apenas “não fingem”. Pois são justamente nesses atalhos “não tão democráticos” que se escondem projetos que jamais passariam no crivo das instituições políticas, como a supressão de direitos individuais e a perseguição ideológica. Projetos que se tornam materiais, entretanto, quando um fantoche de grupos hegemônicos se utiliza da descrença com a realidade e com a própria política para alçar ao poder.

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